Topic: Payments

Payments The hands of a woman holding a purse and a credit card
Photo: Astrakan Images – Getty Images

Cash Withdrawal Symptoms

Luc Delaney, Aidan O'Hara and Richard Finlay

Most Australians don't have to travel more than a few kilometres to deposit or withdraw cash. Cash use is declining, however, and with it the number of ATMs and other cash access points. This trend seems likely to continue. While it will probably have relatively little impact on those living in metropolitan areas, it is important that reasonable access to cash services is maintained for people in regional or remote locations as long as such access is needed.

banknotes, currency, banking, atm
Payments A young woman looks out across the water towards an illuminated city skyline.
Photo: SammyVision – Getty Images

Bank Fees in Australia

Susan Black, Dmitry Titkov and Lydia Wang

The Reserve Bank has conducted a survey on bank fees each year since 1997. Banks' overall income from fees was little changed in 2018. The removal of ATM withdrawal fees by a number of banks reduced total fees charged to households. However, this was largely offset by the continued increase in fee income from small businesses, reflecting strong growth in credit card and debit card transactions.

atm, banking, fees
Payments The symbol of Bitcoin is juxtaposed to an electronic circuit board
Photo: KTSDesign/Science Photo Library – Getty Images

Cryptocurrency: Ten Years On

Cameron Dark, David Emery, June Ma and Clare Noone

Ten years on from the creation of Bitcoin, the term ‘cryptocurrency' has entered the public consciousness. Despite achieving some name recognition, cryptocurrencies are not widely used for payments. This article examines why Bitcoin is unlikely to become a ubiquitous payment method in Australia, and summarises how subsequent cryptocurrencies have sought to address some of the shortcomings of Bitcoin – such as its volatility and scalability problems. It also examines the proliferation of new ‘coins' and concludes that, despite the developments in cryptocurrencies, none are currently functioning as money in the economy.

cryptocurrency, currency, money, payments
Payments Various new Australian banknotes are laid out, with the ten-dollar banknote being prominent.
Photo: Reserve Bank of Australia

Recent Trends in Banknote Counterfeiting

Meika Ball

Law enforcement intervention has shut down several large counterfeiting operations and led to a decline in counterfeiting rates over the past couple of years. At the same time, the increased availability of low-cost, high-quality printing technology has meant that the quality of counterfeits has improved. This article discusses trends in banknote counterfeiting in Australia and the impact of counterfeiting on different stakeholders.

banknotes, counterfeit, security features, law enforcement
Payments A man pays cashless by holding his phone over a scanner.
Photo: zoranm – Getty Images

New Payments Insights from the Updated Retail Payments Statistics Collection

Stephen Mitchell and Hao Wang

The Reserve Bank has significantly expanded the retail payments data that it publishes from 61 to around 300 series. This followed a project conducted in consultation with the industry to update the underlying statistical collection. The new data provide additional insights into Australians' payment behaviours, particularly in the context of the shift towards electronic methods of payment away from cash and cheques. This article discusses some of the new series being published by the Bank.

payments, statistics, npp, rba survey
Payments
Photo: RBA

Understanding Demand for Australia's Banknotes

Max Wakefield and Richard Finlay

As the sole issuer of the nation's banknotes, the Reserve Bank knows how many banknotes it prints, issues to the public and destroys. However, much less is known about how these banknotes are used. This is particularly true for the $50 and $100 banknotes, which, by value, account for more than 90 per cent of banknotes on issue. To help address this, we describe in this article the various components of Australian cash demand and use a range of techniques to estimate how much each category contributes to total demand. Our key findings include that non-transactional demand for cash (e.g. hoarding for store-of-value purposes) has likely been the driving force of recent growth in the value of outstanding banknotes, and that a small but non-trivial portion of cash demand comes from the shadow economy.

banknotes, money
Payments
Photo: mediaphotos – Getty Images

Payment Surcharges: Economics, Regulation and Enforcement

Cameron Dark, Chay Fisher, Kim McBey and Ed Tellez

The Reserve Bank's new rules on surcharging, which are enforced by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC), allow businesses to recover the cost of accepting different payment methods but prevent them from surcharging excessively. This article discusses the economic reasons for allowing businesses to surcharge, how the rules work to prevent excessive surcharging, the effect of these rules since their introduction, and how the ACCC enforces them.

payments, regulation, banking
Payments
Photo: Monsitj

The New Payments Platform and Fast Settlement Service

Alexandra Rush and Riaan Louw

A significant advance in the Australian payments system occurred in February 2018 with the public launch of the New Payments Platform (NPP). The NPP enables customers of financial institutions to make immediate payments 24 hours a day, every day of the week (‘24/7’). In conjunction with the development of the NPP, the Reserve Bank developed new infrastructure, the Fast Settlement Service (FSS), which provides for settlement of NPP transactions between financial institutions on a 24/7 basis across their Exchange Settlement Accounts (ESAs) at the Reserve Bank. These new systems have brought fast payment services to Australians in line with similar initiatives that have been undertaken or are underway internationally. The initial adoption of the NPP has been gradual, reflecting the staged introduction of services by financial institutions, as well as the time taken for customers to assess and adjust to the new services being offered.

npp, payments, technology
Payments Banknotes from England, Canada and Australia are lying on a flat surface
Photo: Gangliu Maogg Tatomm – Getty Images

High-denomination Banknotes in Circulation: A Cross-country Analysis

Gordon Flannigan and Stephanie Parsons

In Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom, the number of high-denomination banknotes in circulation has increased at an above-trend rate in recent years. Evidence suggests that overseas demand might be a common driver of this elevated growth. Increased domestic demand for both transaction and store-of-value purposes may also have contributed, as well as responses to changes in government and central bank policies. This research was undertaken with assistance from members of the Four Nations Distribution Working Group, in line with the group's objective to explore banknote-related topics that are directly relevant to the member central banks.

banknotes

The graphs in the Bulletin were generated using Mathematica.

ISSN 1837-7211 (Online)