Reserve Bank of Australia Annual Report – 2001 Financial Statements Note 1 – Summary of Accounting Policies

Notes to and Forming Part of the Financial Statements 30 June 2001
Reserve Bank of Australia and Controlled Entities

The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the Reserve Bank Act and the Commonwealth Authorities and Companies Act.

The form and content of the financial statements have been amended to incorporate the requirements of Order Number 3 of the Commonwealth Authorities and Companies (Financial Statements 2000–2001) Orders. Policy 1.9 of Schedule 1 of this Order provides:–

Commonwealth entities that are classified as financial institutions (for example Reserve Bank of Australia), must comply with Australian Accounting Standards (including AAS32, entitled Specific Disclosures by Financial Institutions). In the event of a conflict between the requirements of the standards and this Schedule, the Commonwealth entity classified as a financial institution must comply with the requirements of the standards.

The Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) has been granted certain exemptions from the requirements of the Orders as detailed in Note 1(l). These exemptions relate to matters of disclosure and presentation which are of a minor nature and are adequately dealt with in these financial statements.

The statements are a general purpose financial report prepared in accordance with Australian Accounting Standards. Compliance with revised accounting standards has resulted in a small number of comparative amounts being represented and reclassified to ensure comparability with the current reporting period. Unless otherwise stated, the accounting policies and practices followed in these statements are consistent with those followed in the previous year.

All amounts are expressed in Australian dollars unless another currency is indicated. Current market values are used for the RBA's major assets, including domestic and foreign marketable securities, gold and foreign currency, as well as for premises. In other cases, an historical cost basis of accounting is used. Revenue and expenses are brought to account on an accrual basis. All revenues, expenses and profits are from ordinary activities of the RBA.

(a) Consolidation and associated company

The financial statements show information for the economic entity only; this reflects the consolidated results for the parent entity, the Reserve Bank of Australia, and its wholly owned subsidiary, Note Printing Australia Limited. The results of the parent entity do not differ materially from the economic entity and have therefore not been separately disclosed other than in Note 14, Related party and other disclosures. Note Printing Australia Limited was incorporated as a wholly owned subsidiary of the RBA on 1 July 1998, with an initial capital of $20,000,000.

The assets, liabilities and results of Note Printing Australia Limited have been consolidated with the parent entity accounts in accordance with AAS24 “Consolidated Financial Reports”. All internal transactions and balances have been eliminated on consolidation. Note Printing Australia Limited is subject to income tax; its income tax expense is included in the statement of financial performance.

The RBA accounts for its investment in Securency Pty Ltd in accordance with AAS14 “Accounting for Investments in Associates”. The carrying amount of the RBA's investment in Securency Pty Ltd is reviewed annually to ensure that it is not in excess of its recoverable amount. The RBA's investment in Securency Pty Ltd is included in Note 6.

(b) Gold

Gold holdings (including gold on loan to other institutions) are valued at the Australian dollar equivalent of the 3pm fix in the London gold market on the last business day of June. The RBA loans gold to financial institutions participating in the gold market. Gold loans are secured to 110% of their market value by Australian dollar denominated collateral security. Interest on gold loans is accounted for on a standard accrual basis.

(c) Foreign exchange

Foreign exchange holdings are invested mainly in securities (issued by the governments of the United States, Japan and Germany) and bank deposits (with major OECD foreign commercial banks, central banks and international agencies). The RBA engages in interest rate futures and foreign currency swaps and has purchased call options.

Assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency are converted to Australian dollar equivalents at exchange rates ruling on the last business day of June. Realised and unrealised gains or losses on foreign currency are immediately taken to profit, but only realised gains are available for distribution.

Foreign government securities

Foreign government securities comprise coupon and discount securities and repurchase agreements. Coupon securities have bi-annual or annual interest payments depending on the currency and type of security. Interest earned on discount securities is the difference between the actual purchase cost and the face value of the security. The face value is received at maturity. Interest earned on securities is accrued over the term of the security.

Marketable securities, other than those contracted for sale under repurchase agreements, are reported at market values on the last business day of June; realised and unrealised gains and losses arising from changes in market valuations during the year are taken to profit. Earnings on foreign currency investments are converted to Australian dollars using the exchange rate of the date they are received.

Foreign currency swaps

The RBA uses foreign currency swaps to assist daily domestic liquidity management or to smooth the impact of other foreign currency transactions on Official Reserve Assets. A currency swap is the simultaneous purchase and sale of one currency against another currency for specified maturities. The cash flows are the same as borrowing one currency for a set period, and lending another currency for the same period. The pricing of the swap must therefore reflect the interest rates applicable to these money market transactions. Interest rates are implicit in the swap contract but interest itself is not paid or received.

Foreign exchange holdings contracted for sale beyond 30 June 2001 (including those under swap contracts) have been valued at market exchange rates (refer Note 17).

Interest rate futures

The RBA uses interest rate futures contracts on overseas exchanges to hedge risks on its portfolio of foreign securities. An interest rate futures contract is a contract to buy or sell a specific amount of securities for a specific price on a specific future date.

Interest rate futures and foreign currency swaps and call options are off-balance sheet items. The RBA did not trade in any other derivative instruments during 2000/01.

(d) Australian dollar securities

The RBA holds Commonwealth Treasury Fixed Coupon Bonds, Treasury Notes and Treasury Capital Indexed Bonds. It also holds Australian dollar denominated securities, issued by the central borrowing authorities of State and Territory Governments and certain highly rated supranational organisations, where these are acquired under repurchase agreements. Realised and unrealised gains or losses on Australian dollar securities are immediately taken to profit, but only realised gains are available for distribution.

Commonwealth Treasury Fixed Coupon Bonds are coupon securities; the interest is payable bi-annually at the coupon rate. Commonwealth Treasury Notes are discount securities; the interest earned is the difference between the purchase price and the face value on redemption. Treasury Capital Indexed Bonds are coupon securities with the nominal value of the security indexed in line with movements in the consumer price index each quarter until maturity; interest is paid quarterly.

Securities are valued at market prices on the last business day of June except when contracted for sale under repurchase agreements.

(e) Repurchase agreements

In the course of its financial market operations, the RBA engages in repurchase agreements involving foreign and Australian dollar marketable securities.

Securities sold but contracted for purchase under repurchase agreements are reported on the balance sheet within the relevant investment portfolio and are valued at market prices; the counterpart obligation to repurchase is included in “Other liabilities”. The difference between the sale and purchase price is recognised as interest expense over the term of the agreement.

Securities held but contracted for sale under repurchase agreements are reported within the relevant investment portfolio at contract amount. The difference between the purchase and sale price is recognised as interest income over the term of the agreement.

(f) Property, plant and equipment

A formal valuation of all RBA properties is conducted on a triennial basis. The most recent valuation was at 30 June 2001, when Australian properties were valued by officers of the Australian Valuation Office and overseas properties were valued by local independent valuers. The valuations have been incorporated in the accounts.

Valuations on Australian properties are updated annually for developments in the property markets where the RBA's assets are held. Annual depreciation is based on market values and assessments of useful remaining life.

Plant and equipment are recorded at cost less depreciation, which is calculated at rates appropriate to the estimated useful life of the relevant assets. Depreciation rates are reviewed annually, and adjusted where necessary to reflect the most recent assessments of the useful life of assets.

In the opinion of the Board, values of plant and equipment in the financial statements do not exceed recoverable values.

Details of annual net expenditure, revaluation adjustments and depreciation of these assets are included in Note 7.

(g) Reserves

Reserves are maintained to cover the broad range of risks to which the RBA is exposed. In the past, the RBA maintained two major reserve funds: the Reserve Bank Reserve Fund (RBRF) provided for potential losses from fraud and other non-insured losses; and the Reserve for Contingencies and General Purposes (RCGP) which provided for events which were contingent and non-foreseeable, mainly those which arise from movements in market values of the RBA's holdings of Australian dollar and foreign securities. During 2000/01 the Board reviewed the structure and adequacy of the Bank's capital and reserves. The decision was made to transfer the funds in the RCGP to the RBRF, and to close the RCGP. On 30 June 2001, balances formerly held in the RCGP were transferred to the RBRF, and the RCGP was closed. The RBRF is now a general reserve providing for all risks previously covered by both the RBRF and RCGP. Amounts set aside for this reserve are determined by the Treasurer after consultation with the Board.

Asset revaluation reserves reflect the impact of changes in the market values of a number of the RBA's assets (gold, premises, and shares in international financial institutions).

Unrealised gains on foreign exchange and Australian dollar securities are recognised in profit from ordinary activities. Until such gains are realised, they are not available for distribution to the Commonwealth of Australia; in the interim the amounts are retained in the Unrealised Profits Reserve.

(h) Profits

Profits of the Bank are dealt with in terms of Section 30 of the Reserve Bank Act as follows:

  1. Subject to (2) (below), the net profits of the Bank in each year shall be dealt with as follows:
    1. such amount as the Treasurer, after consultation with the Reserve Bank Board, determines to be set aside for contingencies; and
    2. such amount as the Treasurer, after consultation with the Reserve Bank Board, determines shall be placed to the credit of the Reserve Bank Reserve Fund; and
    3. the remainder shall be paid to the Commonwealth.
  2. If the net profit of the Bank for a year is calculated on a basis that requires the inclusion of unrealised gains on assets during the year, the amount to which subsection (1) applies is to be worked out as follows:
    1. deduct from the net profit an amount equal to the total of all amounts of unrealised gains included in the net profit; and
    2. if an asset in respect of which unrealised gains were included in the net profit for a previous year or years is realised during the year – add to the amount remaining after applying paragraph (a) the total amount of those unrealised gains.

(i) Provisions

The RBA maintains provisions for accrued annual leave, calculated on salaries prevailing at balance date and including associated payroll tax. The RBA also maintains provisions for long service leave and post-employment benefits, in the form of health insurance and housing assistance, and associated fringe benefits tax; these provisions are made on a present value basis in accordance with AAS30. In addition, the RBA makes provision for future workers' compensation claims in respect of incidents which have occurred before balance date, based on an independent actuarial assessment.

(j) Australian notes on issue

The RBA assesses regularly the value of notes still outstanding at least five years after the note issue ceased which are judged to have been destroyed and therefore unavailable for presentation. No amount was written off Australian notes on issue in 2000/01, or in 1999/2000.

(k) Rounding

Amounts in the financial statements are rounded off to the nearest million dollars unless otherwise stated.

(l) Exemptions

The RBA has been granted exemptions from the following requirements of Order Number 3 of the Commonwealth Authorities and Companies (Financial Statements 2000–2001). Orders:–

Requirement Description Detail of exemption
Policy 10 Analysis of property, plant and equipment Information is included in Note 7 of these financial statements. These disclosures are more relevant than the dissections required by Policy 10 of the Orders.
Appendix A Forms of Financial Statements Details of revenues and expenses are disclosed in Note 2. The cash flow statement is provided in Note 18.