#### Topics

##### Number Systems

##### Number Systems

##### Algebra

##### Polynomials

##### Linear Equations in Two Variables

##### Algebraic Expressions

##### Algebraic Identities

##### Coordinate Geometry

##### Geometry

##### Introduction to Euclid’S Geometry

##### Lines and Angles

##### Triangles

##### Quadrilaterals

- Concept of Quadrilaterals - Sides, Adjacent Sides, Opposite Sides, Angle, Adjacent Angles and Opposite Angles
- Angle Sum Property of a Quadrilateral
- Types of Quadrilaterals
- Theorem: A Diagonal of a Parallelogram Divides It into Two Congruent Triangles.
- Another Condition for a Quadrilateral to Be a Parallelogram
- The Mid-point Theorem
- Theorem: A Diagonal of a Parallelogram Divides It into Two Congruent Triangles.
- Property: The Opposite Sides of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Length.
- Theorem : If Each Pair of Opposite Sides of a Quadrilateral is Equal, Then It is a Parallelogram.
- Property: The Opposite Angles of a Parallelogram Are of Equal Measure.
- Theorem: If in a Quadrilateral, Each Pair of Opposite Angles is Equal, Then It is a Parallelogram.
- Property: The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. (at the point of their intersection)
- Theorem : If the Diagonals of a Quadrilateral Bisect Each Other, Then It is a Parallelogram

##### Area

##### Circles

- Concept of Circle - Centre, Radius, Diameter, Arc, Sector, Chord, Segment, Semicircle, Circumference, Interior and Exterior, Concentric Circles
- Angle Subtended by a Chord at a Point
- Perpendicular from the Centre to a Chord
- Circles Passing Through One, Two, Three Points
- Equal Chords and Their Distances from the Centre
- Angle Subtended by an Arc of a Circle
- Cyclic Quadrilateral

##### Constructions

##### Mensuration

##### Areas - Heron’S Formula

##### Surface Areas and Volumes

##### Statistics and Probability

##### Statistics

##### Probability

#### notes

**Activity :** Try to make a hollow cylinder and a hollow cone like this with the same base radius and the same height in following fig.

Then, we can try out an experiment that will help us, to see practically what the volume of a right circular cone would be!

So, let us start like this.

Fill the cone up to the brim with sand once, and empty it into the cylinder. We find that it fills up only a part of the cylinder (see above fig(a)).

When we fill up the cone again to the brim, and empty it into the cylinder, we see that the cylinder is still not full (see above fig.(b)).

When the cone is filled up for the third time, and emptied into the cylinder, it can be seen that the cylinder is also full to the brim (see above fig.(c)).

we can safely come to the conclusion that three times the volume of a cone, makes up the volume of a cylinder, which has the same base radius and the same height as the cone, which means that the volume of the cone is one-third the volume of the cylinder.

So,** Volume of a Cone = `1/3 πr^2h`**

where r is the base radius and h is the height of the cone.