Conference – 1998 What Works Among Active Labour Market Policies: Evidence from OECD Countries' Experiences

Table 1: Institutional Variables(a)
1983–94
Replacement rate Benefit duration ALMP Union coverage Union co-ordination Employer co-ordination Employment protection Change in inflation
Austria 60 50 4   8.7 8.3 3   3   3   16 −0.46 0.06
Belgium 60   4   10.0 14.6 3   2   2   17 −0.76 −0.52
Denmark 90   2.5   10.6 10.3 3   3   3   5 −0.86 −0.46
Finland 75 63 4 2 18.4 16.4 3   3 2 3   10 −0.26 −0.72
France 57   3.75 3 7.2 8.8 3   2   2   14 −1.38 −0.30
Germany 63   4   12.9 25.7 3   2   3   15 −0.34 −0.04
Ireland 50 37 4   9.2 9.1 3   1   1   12 −1.52 −0.54
Italy 2 20 0.5   10.1 10.3 3   2   1 2 20 −1.68 −0.52
Netherlands 70   4 2 4.0 6.9 3   2   2   9 −0.14 0.14
Norway 65   1.5   9.5 14.7 3   3   3   11 −0.34 −1.12
Portugal 60 65 0.5 0.8 5.9 18.8 3   2   2   18 −2.74 −1.28
Spain 80 70 3.5   3.2 4.7 3   2   1   19 −1.24 −0.60
Sweden 80   1.2   59.5 59.3 3   3   3   13 −0.75 −1.02
Switzerland 70   1   23.0 8.2 2   1   3   6 −0.12 −0.50
United Kingdom 36 38 4   7.8 6.4 3 2 1   1   7 0.16 −1.02
Australia 39 36 4   4.1 3.2 3   2   1   4 0.02 −1.24
Canada 60 59 0.5 1 6.3 5.9 2   1   1   3 −0.08 −0.84
Japan 60   0.5   5.4 4.3 2   2   2   8 −0.20 −0.36
New Zealand 38 30 4   15.4 6.8 2   2 1 1   2 0.36 −1.22
United States 50   0.5   3.9 3.0 1   1   1   1 −0.04 −0.48

Note: (a) When a variable changes between the two subperiods, the first number is for 1983–88 and the second for 1989–94.

Sources: Jackman et al. (1996). ‘Replacement rate’ and ‘Benefit duration’: Mainly US Department of Health and Social Services, Social Security Programmes throughout the World, 1985 and 1993. See Layard, Nickell and Jackman (1991), Annex 1.3. ‘ALMP’: OECD Employment Outlook 1988 and 1995. For the first subperiod the data relate to 1987 and for the second to 1991. We include all active spending except on the disabled. ‘Union coverage’, ‘Union co-ordination’ and ‘Employer co-ordination’: See Layard, Nickell and Jackman (1991), Annex 1.4 and OECD Employment Outlook 1994, pp. 175–185. ‘Employment protection’: The OECD Jobs Study 1994, Part II Table 6.7 col. 5 p. 74. Country ranking with 20 as the most strictly regulated. ‘Inflation’: OECD Economic Outlook.