Conference – 1994 Openness and Growth

Table 2: Estimated Openness 1960–90
  1960 GDP Trade Intensity Population '000 Openness   1960 GDP Trade Intensity Population '000 Openness
Less Developed Countries More Developed Countries
1 Myanmar 296 20 30,283 −0.65 45 Hong Kong 2,210 186 4,412 1.07
2 Botswana 552 99 780 −0.04 46 Czechoslovakia 2,468 46 14,757 0.02
3 Pakistan 618 30 72,435 0.01 47 Mexico 2,809 21 60,963 −0.40
4 Indonesia 625 37 132,531 0.39 48 Chile 2,893 41 10,271 −0.22
5 India 665 13 616,457 −0.25 49 Japan 3,033 22 109,675 −0.17
6 Egypt 770 49 37,046 0.33 50 Puerto Rico 3,069 123 2,921 0.54
7 Morocco 790 46 17,466 0.06 51 Ireland 3,184 95 3,175 0.30
8 Bangladesh 798 21 76,089 −0.32 52 Spain 3,196 30 35,212 −0.17
9 China 825 13 950,155 −0.10 53 Argentina 3,293 20 26,022 −0.66
10 Haiti 873 37 4,966 −0.51 54 Uruguay 3,829 34 2,835 −0.76
11 Korea, Rep. 907 52 34,418 0.37 55 Italy 4,636 37 54,651 0.16
12 Thailand 929 45 40,762 0.27 56 Iceland 5,172 78 215 −0.64
13 Honduras 1,007 61 3,202 −0.13 57 Austria 5,176 63 7,443 0.14
14 Tunisia 1,088 64 5,791 0.08 58 Finland 5,367 51 4,706 −0.20
15 Bolivia 1,112 47 4,979 −0.27 59 Trin. & Tobago 5,577 88 1,016 −0.08
16 Philippines 1,119 43 42,856 0.23 60 Belgium 5,583 112 9,673 0.78
17 Papua New Guinea 1,128 77 2,754 0.06 61 Norway 5,665 85 3,950 0.25
18 Jordan 1,141 85 2,648 0.15 62 France 6,013 36 51,906 0.11
19 Dominic. Rep. 1,162 48 5,038 −0.25 63 Netherlands 6,122 98 13,422 0.74
20 Paraguay 1,215 36 2,789 −0.69 64 Venezuela 6,194 45 12,776 −0.06
21 Sri Lanka 1,285 68 13,409 0.38 65 UK 6,548 49 55,624 0.44
22 El Salvador 1,372 56 3,933 −0.15 66 Germany, W. 6,637 46 60,297 0.39
23 Taiwan 1,382 74 15,850 0.51 67 Denmark 6,751 63 4,967 0.01
24 Malaysia 1,397 93 12,340 0.66 68 Canada 7,288 46 22,381 0.13
25 Ecuador 1,433 44 7,089 −0.24 69 Sweden 7,492 54 8,086 0.01
26 Nicaragua 1,466 56 2,425 −0.30 70 Australia 7,879 32 13,549 −0.39
27 Panama 1,520 79 1,732 −0.04 71 New Zealand 7,920 54 2,954 −0.28
28 Guyana 1,524 126 700 0.17 72 Luxembourg 8,112 174 351 0.30
29 Turkey 1,604 23 40,007 −0.41 73 Switzerland 9,639 66 6,203 0.14
30 Guatemala 1,641 37 6,103 −0.45 74 United States 9,776 15 215,246 −0.40
31 Colombia 1,652 28 23,673 −0.36  
32 Singapore 1,712 307 2,264 1.39  
33 Algeria 1,717 52 16,426 0.17  
34 Brazil 1,758 16 108,036 −0.51  
35 Jamaica 1,788 86 2,002 0.08  
36 Portugal 1,869 61 9,412 0.17  
37 Peru 1,917 34 15,187 −0.27  
38 Yugoslavia 1,955 44 21,206 0.06  
39 Costa Rica 2,021 64 1,959 −0.21  
40 Cyprus 2,043 94 621 −0.15  
41 Fiji 2,046 93 571 −0.19  
42 Greece 2,088 39 9,176 −0.28  
43 Suriname 2,097 104 364 −0.20  
44 South Africa 2,109 54 25,454 0.32  
Note: Openness is the residual from the regression reported in Table 1. Trade intensity and population are averages for 1960–90.