Topic: Financial Markets

Financial Markets
Photo: Image Source

Money in the Australian Economy

Emma Doherty, Ben Jackman and Emily Perry

Money forms part of our everyday lives and is integral to the smooth functioning of the financial system and the real economy; however, discussions of what money is and how it is created are generally left to economics textbooks. This article provides an introduction to the concept of money and describes how it is created and measured. We also discuss what these measures can tell us about economic activity.

credit, banknotes, money
Financial Markets
Photo: Nikada

Interest Rate Benchmarks for the Australian Dollar

Serena Alim and Ellis Connolly

Interest rate benchmarks are widely relied upon in global financial markets. They are referenced in contracts for derivatives, loans and securities. They are also used by market participants to value financial instruments, and by investment funds as benchmarks for assessing their performance. The key interest rate benchmarks for the Australian dollar are the bank bill swap rates (BBSW) and the cash rate. This article provides an overview of these benchmarks, and the reforms that have been undertaken over recent years to make them more robust.

financial markets, financial instruments, currency
Financial Markets An image that represents a network and linkages between players in the OTC derivatives market
Photo: JulieanneBirch, AF-studio – Getty Images

The Australian OTC Derivatives Market: Insights from New Trade Repository Data

Duke Cole and Daniel Ji

Over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives have played a significant role in episodes of financial stress, including the global financial crisis. However, because these derivatives are not traded on exchanges, detailed information about them has not generally been available. Newly available trade-level data coming from trade repositories can now facilitate a closer look at these markets than was possible before. This article focusses on OTC interest rate derivatives. Central counterparties (CCPs) have become much more important, in large part because of G20 reforms to increase the central clearing of OTC derivatives. Nonetheless, Australian banks still have significant exposures to other counterparties, including foreign banks. In aggregate, Australian banks hold a variety of offsetting single-currency interest rate derivatives, and use cross-currency swaps to hedge exchange rate risks.

derivatives, interest rates, financial instruments, regulations, central clearing

The graphs in the Bulletin were generated using Mathematica.

ISSN 1837-7211 (Online)