With Federation and the opening of Parliament, the new nation begins an eventful first two decades. During this time, Australia produces its first currency notes, like this £1,000 note.
The new Constitution gives the Australian Government responsibility for banking and the issue of currency notes.
The Commonwealth of Australia comes into being. The first Federal Election is held. Edmund Barton becomes Australia's first Prime Minister.
Women vote for Parliament for the first time and three stand for election.
In the first decade after Federation, private bank notes continued to circulate as a paper currency.
The world's first full-length feature film, The Story of the Kelly Gang, is screened in Melbourne.
The Basic Wage is introduced (at £2/2/-).
The Australian Notes Act 1910 is passed vesting authority to issue Australian notes in the Treasury.
As an interim measure the Government overprints private bank notes with the words 'Australian Note'.
In the first decade or so after Federation, rural and mining activities are a third of the economy. Wool and gold alone account for about 60 per cent of all exports.
The first Federal Census is conducted.
The Commonwealth Bank Act 1911 is proclaimed, establishing the Commonwealth Bank of Australia.
The first Australian currency note (10 shillings) is issued. Other denominations follow. The notes reflect the dependence of the Australian economy on rural and mining industries.
Canberra is named.
Australia enters World War I. This period sees an upsurge in inflation and falling real incomes but unemployment is low.
The Commonwealth Bank takes over the distribution of currency notes from the private banks and organises the first Australian war loan.
BHP Steel Works open in Newcastle.
Australian troops land at Gallipoli, Turkey.
The Transcontinental Railway is completed enabling trains to link the eastern and western states.
The Australian population reaches 5 million.
World War I ends.
The first flight takes place between England and Australia.